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User Manual 1.3

Components for Designers

The Qubu Ultralight for Designers Grasshopper plugin addresses two primary daylight issues: Direct Sunlight provisioning and indirect Daylight Factor. Each evaluation comprises the main Grasshopper component for the evaluation itself, along with supplementary components for assembling input data and breaking down output results.

Direct sunlight evaluation at a point

Direct Sunlight provisioning can be assessed at a free-standing point. The outcome of this evaluation is the duration of direct sunlight rays reaching the sensor point on the specified day. This duration is exclusively influenced by the positions and dimensions of obstacle objects that may cast a shadow at the sensor point.



Direct Sunlight at Point

Inputs

  • Obstacle Geometry - Geometry that may obstruct direct sunlight from reaching the sensors.
    Supported types:
    - Mesh
    - Geometry convertible to Mesh - BRep, Surface, Box, closed Curve
    - Scene Geometry with opaque material (Non-Opaque geometry will be skipped)
    Do not include glazing geometry. Provide a flat list of geometry common to sensors across all data tree branches. The Obstacle Geometry is optional - the input list may remain empty.
    Units: meters

  • DS Sensor - Standalone sensor points for Direct Sunlight evaluation. Do not place the sensors directly on surface of any Obstacle Geometry.

  • North Vector - Vector indicating direction of the geographic North.

  • Country Index - Index of the country where the evaluated project is located.
    0 = Austria
    1 = Belgium
    2 = Bulgaria
    3 = Croatia
    4 = Cyprus
    5 = Czech Republic
    6 = Denmark
    7 = Estonia
    8 = Finland
    9 = France
    10 = Germany
    11 = Greece
    12 = Hungary
    13 = Ireland
    14 = Iceland
    15 = Italy
    16 = Lithuania
    17 = Latvia
    18 = Luxembourg
    19 = Malta
    20 = Netherlands
    21 = North Macedonia
    22 = Norway
    23 = Poland
    24 = Portugal
    25 = Romania
    26 = Slovakia
    27 = Slovenia
    28 = Spain
    29 = Sweden
    30 = Switzerland
    31 = Turkey
    32 = United Kingdom

  • Precision - Predefined parameters specifying the precision of the evaluation.
    0 = Low (fast)
    1 = Medium (norm default)
    2 = High (slow)

Outputs

  • Sunlight hours - Duration of Direct Sunlight reaching the sensor points on the 21st of March (specified by the European norm EN 17037:2018+A1:2021).
    Units: hours


Direct sunlight evaluation for an apartment

The European norm EN 17037:2018+A1:2021 outlines guidelines for evaluating Direct Sunlight provision within an apartment and establishes thresholds for sufficiency levels. In essence, at least one habitable room in the residence should receive Direct Sunlight for a minimum of 1.5 hours on March 21st (refer to paragraph A.4). To meet this metric, the sensor data must be organized into rooms and apartments.

The Qubu Ultralight for Designers simplifies the process of composing input data, requiring no specialized skills and minimal computational power.



Direct Sunlight

The main Direct Sunlight evaluation component.

Inputs

  • Obstacle Geometry - Geometry that may obstruct direct sunlight from reaching the sensors.
    Supported types:
    - Mesh
    - Geometry convertible to Mesh - BRep, Surface, Box, closed Curve
    - Scene Geometry with opaque material (Non-Opaque geometry will be skipped)
    Do not include glazing geometry. Provide a flat list of geometry common to sensors across all data tree branches. The Obstacle Geometry is optional - the input list may remain empty.
    Units: meters

  • DS Apartment - Apartments containing Direct Sunlight sensors distributed into rooms and windows within the rooms.

  • North Vector - Vector indicating direction of the geographic North.

  • Country Index - Index of the country where the evaluated project is located.
    0 = Austria
    1 = Belgium
    2 = Bulgaria
    3 = Croatia
    4 = Cyprus
    5 = Czech Republic
    6 = Denmark
    7 = Estonia
    8 = Finland
    9 = France
    10 = Germany
    11 = Greece
    12 = Hungary
    13 = Ireland
    14 = Iceland
    15 = Italy
    16 = Lithuania
    17 = Latvia
    18 = Luxembourg
    19 = Malta
    20 = Netherlands
    21 = North Macedonia
    22 = Norway
    23 = Poland
    24 = Portugal
    25 = Romania
    26 = Slovakia
    27 = Slovenia
    28 = Spain
    29 = Sweden
    30 = Switzerland
    31 = Turkey
    32 = United Kingdom

  • Precision - Predefined parameters specifying the precision of the evaluation.
    0 = Low (fast)
    1 = Medium (norm default)
    2 = High (slow)

Outputs

  • DS Apartment Results - Results of Apartment evaluation for Direct Sunlight gains on the 21st of March (specified by the European norm EN 17037:2018+A1:2021). The results are a distinct datatype, that automatically casts into hours and can be broken down into more detailed results.



DS Room Sensors

A component that conveniently packs window sensors inputs belonging into a single room. This component can be optionally used with inputs organized into Grasshopper Data Trees.

Inputs

  • Window Positions - Positions of sensors in space, where the Direct Sunlight gains will be evaluated. According to EN 17037:2018+A1:2021, "the assessment should be conducted... ...for each opening of the space, from a reference point (point P) located on the inner surface of the aperture. Point P is located at the centre of the opening width... ...The reference point is minimum 1.2 m above the floor and 0.3 m above the sill of the daylight opening, if present. If a daylight opening is without a sill, the reference point is located 1.2 m above the floor."
    Units: meters

  • Window Normals - Window Normals (vectors perpendicular to windows), pointing outwards. The normals need to be projected to the ground plane (their Z component must be 0) because only vertical windows are supported.
    This list is parallel to the Window Positions list.

Outputs

  • DS Room - Room for Direct Sunlight evaluation. This serves as an input to the DS Apartment Sensors component.



DS Apartment Sensors

A component that conveniently packs DS Room Sensor inputs belonging into a single apartment. This component can be optionally used with inputs organized into Grasshopper Data Trees.


Inputs

  • DS Rooms - DS Rooms belonging into a single apartment for Direct Sunlight evaluation.

Outputs

  • DS Apartment - Room for Direct Sunlight evaluation. This serves as an input to the Direct Sunlight component.



DS Apartment Results Breakdown

Breaks down the computed Direct Sunlight evaluation results per apartment.

Inputs

  • DS Apartment Results - Results of the Direct Sunlight evaluations for apartment. This is a dedicated data type that can only be produced by the Direct Sunlight component. The type automatically casts to hours when converted into a number.

Outputs

  • Hours - Duration of Direct Sunlight entering the apartment on the 21st of March (specified by the European norm EN 17037:2018+A1:2021).
    Units: hours.

  • Satisfaction Level - Satisfaction Level of the amount of direct sunlight entering the apartment on the 21st of March. The EN 17037:2018+A1:2021 mandates a minimum cumulative exposure of 1.5 hours of direct sunlight from all windows within a room for it to be rated better than Insufficient. Each apartment must include at least one room meeting this criterion.

  • DS Room Results - Direct Sunlight evaluation Results per room. This is a dedicated data type that can only be produced by the DS Apartment Results Breakdown component and is only accepted by the DS Room Results Breakdown component. The type automatically casts to hours when converted into a number.



DS Room Results Breakdown

Breaks down the computed Direct Sunlight evaluation results per room.

Inputs

  • DS Room Results - Results of the Direct Sunlight evaluations for room.
    This is a dedicated data type that can only be produced by the DS Apartment Results Breakdown component.

Outputs

  • Hours - Duration of Direct Sunlight entering the room on the 21st of March (specified by the European norm EN 17037:2018+A1:2021).
    Units: hours.

  • Satisfaction Level - Satisfaction Level of the amount of direct sunlight entering the room on the 21st of March. The EN 17037:2018+A1:2021 mandates a minimum cumulative exposure of 1.5 hours of direct sunlight from all windows within a room for it to be rated better than Insufficient. Each apartment must include at least one room meeting this criterion.

  • DS Window Results - Direct Sunlight evaluation Results per window. This is a dedicated data type that can only be produced by the DS Room Results Breakdown component and is only accepted by the DS Window Results Breakdown. DS Window Results shows the approximate preview of rays shot from the sensor towards the Sun, visualizing whether the ray hits the sun or an obstacle. The type casts to: preview mesh (bakable), position point and number of hours.



DS Window Results Breakdown

Breaks down the computed Direct Sunlight evaluation results per window.

Inputs

  • DS Window Results - Results of the Direct Sunlight evaluations for window.
    This is a dedicated data type that can only be produced by the DS Room Results Breakdown component.

Outputs

  • Hours - Duration of Direct Sunlight entering the window on the 21st of March (specified by the European norm EN 17037:2018+A1:2021).
    Units: hours.

  • Satisfaction Level - Satisfaction Level of the amount of direct sunlight entering the window on the 21st of March. The EN 17037:2018+A1:2021 mandates a minimum cumulative exposure of 1.5 hours of direct sunlight from all windows within a room for it to be rated better than Insufficient. Each apartment must include at least one room meeting this criterion.

Daylight Factor evaluation for a room

“Daylight Factor is a ratio of the illuminance at a point on a given plane due to the light received directly or indirectly from a sky of assumed or known luminance distribution, to the illuminance on a horizontal plane due to an unobstructed hemisphere of this sky, excluding the contribution of direct sunlight to both illuminances.” EN 17037:2018+A1:2021

As per paragraph A.2 of the EN 17037:2018+A1:2021, the Qubu Ultralight for Designers ensures specific target illuminance levels are met:

  1. A minimum of 300lx should be provided at 50% of the reference plane.

  2. Simultaneously, a minimum of 100lx should be provided at 95% of the reference plane.

The reference plane, positioned 0.85m above the floor, follows the density and shape specifications outlined in paragraph B.2. of the EN 17037:2018+A1:2021.

The daylight factor is computed using CIE Standard Overcast Sky Type 1, with steep luminance gradation towards zenith, azimuthal uniformity, in accordance with standard ISO 15469:2004(E), CIE S 011/E:2003.



Daylight Factor

The main component for the Daylight Factor computation.

Inputs

  • Scene Geometry - Scene Geometry with Opaque or Glazing Material.
    Requires a dedicated data type containing obstacle geometry annotated with material properties. Such data can be produced exclusively by components Opaque Geometry and Glazing Geometry. For accurate results also provide terrain as Opaque Geometry.
    Data trees are not supported. Provide a flat list of geometry common to rooms across all data tree branches. The Scene Geometry is optional - the input list may remain empty.

  • Room Boundaries - Planar closed Polylines representing room boundaries.
    A single room can be represented by multiple polylines - either as detached spaces or interruptions in plan, such as columns or obstacles.
    The boundary should be positioned at the room's floor level.
    When defining multiple rooms, make sure each room's boundaries are stored in a separate data tree branch.
    Units: meters

  • Grid Orientations - A planar vector defining the grid orientation. This allows customizing the orientation of generated sensor grids per each branch of the Room Boundaries tree.
    If no orientation is provided, it will be automatically determined for each evaluated room from its first segment of the first boundary polyline.

  • Country Index - Index of the country where the evaluated project is located.
    0 = Austria
    1 = Belgium
    2 = Bulgaria
    3 = Croatia
    4 = Cyprus
    5 = Czech Republic
    6 = Denmark
    7 = Estonia
    8 = Finland
    9 = France
    10 = Germany
    11 = Greece
    12 = Hungary
    13 = Ireland
    14 = Iceland
    15 = Italy
    16 = Lithuania
    17 = Latvia
    18 = Luxembourg
    19 = Malta
    20 = Netherlands
    21 = North Macedonia
    22 = Norway
    23 = Poland
    24 = Portugal
    25 = Romania
    26 = Slovakia
    27 = Slovenia
    28 = Spain
    29 = Sweden
    30 = Switzerland
    31 = Turkey
    32 = United Kingdom

  • Precision - Predefined parameters specifying the precision of the evaluation.
    0 = Low (fast)
    1 = Medium (norm default)
    2 = High (slow)

Outputs

  • Daylight Factor - Daylight Factor numerical values for room sensors.
    The sensors are computed automatically in accordance with the EN 17037:2018+A1:2021.

  • Satisfaction Level - Satisfaction level per room according to the EN 17037:2018+A1:2021.
    These are:
    Insufficient = (M < 300lx, P < 100lx)
    Low = (M >= 300lx, P >= 100lx)
    Medium = (M >= 500lx, P >= 300lx)
    High = (M >= 750lx, P >= 300lx)
    where M is the median and P is the 5 percentile of the sensor values.

  • Grid Cells - Rectangular areas where Daylight Factor values were calculated.
    The sensor grid cells are computed automatically in accordance with the EN 17037:2018+A1:2021.



Opaque Geometry

This component generates geometry for Daylight Factor calculation with opaque (non-transparent, Lambertian) material. The component seamlessly converts compatible geometry into a triangulated mesh automatically. For complete control over the mesh's level of detail, manual conversion is recommended. Provide a triangulated mesh that will not undergo any modifications during the process.

Inputs

  • Mesh - Mesh geometry to be used as an opaque obstacle.
    Surfaces and BReps will be automatically converted into Mesh.
    Units: meters

  • Reflectance - Reflectance coefficient [0.00 to 1.00]: 0.00 = black, 1.00 = white
    Recommended values from "Bošová, D. (2016). Denní OSVĚTLENÍ budov: TP 1.8.8. Pro Českou komoru autorizovaných inženýrů a techniků činných ve výstavbě vydává Informační centrum ČKAIT.":
    0.75 - 0.80 = White surface
    0.60 - 0.70 = Cream and beige surface
    0.60 - 0.70 = Light yellow surface
    0.50 - 0.60 = Dark yellow surface
    0.40 - 0.50 = Light red surface
    0.15 - 0.30 = Dark red surface
    0.45 - 0.65 = Light green surface
    0.05 - 0.20 = Dark green surface
    0.40 - 0.60 = Light blue surface
    0.05 - 0.20 = Dark blue surface
    0.12 - 0.25 = Brown surface
    0.40 - 0.60 = Light grey surface
    0.15 - 0.20 = Dark grey surface
    0.01 - 0.03 = Black surface
    0.25 = Red brick, Clay
    0.50 = Light sand
    0.80 - 0.92 = White gypsum
    0.55 - 0.80 = White marble
    0.40 - 0.50 = Granite
    0.30 - 0.50 = Light wood
    0.15 - 0.25 = Dark wood
    0.05 - 0.10 = Greenery, grass
    0.10 = Tarmac
    0.30 = Concrete tiles
    0.08 - 0.20 = Soil
    0.28 = Steel
    0.75 - 0.85 = Eloxed or polished aluminum
    0.80 - 0.90 = Glass mirror (reflected image)
    0.10 = Glass window (from outside)
    0.30 - 0.40 = Glass window with with hangings
    0.75 - 0.80 = Snow

Outputs

  • Scene Geometry - Scene Geometry with a Opaque Material for Daylight Factor computation.



Glazing Geometry

This component generates geometry for Daylight Factor calculation with clear transparent material. The component seamlessly converts compatible geometry into a triangulated mesh automatically. For complete control over the mesh's level of detail, manual conversion is recommended. Provide a triangulated mesh that will not undergo any modifications during the process.

The Daylight Factor calculation process mandates that glazing geometry be single-layered, open, possess naked edges, and be oriented vertically. While the component does test and validate these conditions to some extent, it's important to note that not all instances of unsupported geometry can be detected and reported.

Inputs

  • Mesh - Mesh geometry to be used as a transparent glazing.
    Vertical, open, single-plane Mesh geometry is expected.
    Surfaces and BReps will be automatically converted into Mesh.
    Units: meters

  • Transparency - Transmittance (transparency) coefficient [0.00 to 1.00]: 0.00 = opaque, 1.00 = transparent
    Recommended values from "Bošová, D. (2016). Denní OSVĚTLENÍ budov: TP 1.8.8. Pro Českou komoru autorizovaných inženýrů a techniků činných ve výstavbě vydává Informační centrum ČKAIT.":
    0.92 = Clear single sheet glazing
    0.85 = Clear double sheet glazing
    0.78 = Clear triple sheet glazing
    0.85 - 0.90 = Sheet glazing with pattern
    0.35 - 0.7 = Dethermal glass
    0.55 - 0.65 = Reflective glass
    0.85 - 0.89 = Single-layer glass bricks
    0.50 - 0.75 = Sheer curtain

Outputs

  • Scene Geometry - Scene Geometry with a Transparent Material for Daylight Factor computation.



Components for Specialist

The Qubu Ultralight for Specialists Grasshopper plugin provides complete control over the computation of Direct Sunlight provisioning and indirect Daylight Factor. Each evaluation includes the primary Grasshopper component for the evaluation itself, along with supplementary components for compiling input data and conducting detailed analysis of the output results.

Users of the Qubu Ultralight for Specialists are expected to have experience with Grasshopper. The plugin equips them with tools and data that can be integrated into larger Grasshopper definitions, enabling precise evaluation, optimization, and fine-tuning of architectural projects.


Direct sunlight evaluation

Direct Sunlight provisioning assessed at a free-standing point. The detailed outcome of this evaluation can be processed and used in the rest of the Grasshopper definition. The results contain information about the duration of direct sunlight rays reaching the sensor point on the specified day, including specific times when the sun rays reach the sensors. This is exclusively influenced by the positions and dimensions of obstacle objects that may cast a shadow at the sensor point.



Direct Sunlight Raw

Compute Direct Sunlight for a Scene and a set of Sensors. The computation is not constrained by any norm and rather represents a physical simulation.

Inputs

  • Scene - A Scene containing Scene Geometry that may obstruct direct sunlight from reaching the sensors.
    Do not include glazing geometry.
    The Scene may contain no Scene Geometry.

  • Sensor Positions - Standalone sensor points for Direct Sunlight evaluation.
    Do not place the sensors directly on surface of any Scene Geometry.

  • North Vector - Vector indicating direction of the geographic North.

  • Latitude - Latitude of the evaluated point in radians (can be switched to degrees by right-clicking the input pin).
    Coordinates for European capitals can be obtained from the Country Constants component.

  • Longitude - Longitude of the evaluated point in radians (can be switched to degrees by right-clicking the input pin).
    Coordinates for European capitals can be obtained from the Country Constants component.

  • Time Zone Override - Time Zone Override in the place of measurement, not counting Daylight Savings Time.
    If not provided, Time Zone is inferred based on Longitude (Std. Meridian).
    The value is expected to be in range [-12 to 11]. 0 is UTC.
    Time Zone Overrides for European capitals can be obtained from the Country Constants component.

  • Date - Date for the sun path simulation.
    The value must be in range [1 Jan 1900 to 31 Dec 2100]

  • Solar Vector Count - Number of solar vectors (rays) to generate for evaluating the 24h cycle.
    The count is expected to be in range [1 to 65535].
    The higher the number, the more precise the results and slower computation.
    Examples:
    1440 = 24 * 60 for one ray per minute
    7200 = 24 * 60 * 5 for five rays per minute
    288 = (24 * 60) / 5 for one ray per 5 minutes

Outputs

  • DS Sensor Results - Direct Sunlight results for provided positions in the individual sensors.
    Regardless of how many rays are tested, the results always span the entire 24 hours.
    The Solar Vector Count input specifies precision of the result values.
    DS Window Results shows the approximate preview of rays shot from the sensor towards the Sun, visualizing whether the ray hits the sun or an obstacle. The type casts to: preview mesh (bakable), position point and number of hours.
    DS Sensor Results can be postprocessed using Sample DS Sensor Results component.



Mask DS Sensor Results

Filter Hour Intervals that should count and mask out (set to zero) those that are not listed. This is useful for compliance with various norms and standards, when certain rays should not be counted due to their elevation angle or azimuth. Data for filtering applicable Time Intervals can be obtained from the Solar Vector component.

Inputs

  • DS Sensor Results - Results of the direct sunlight evaluation either by Direct Sunlight Raw component or Direct Sunlight (the results need to be broken down all the way to DS Window Results). The DS Sensor results contain detailed about direct sunlight provisioning at each time of the day.

  • Mask Hour Intervals - Parts of the day for which to enable (keep unmasked) Direct Sunlight time from the Sensor results.
    Units: Hours

Outputs

  • Masked DS Sensor Results - Masked Direct Sunlight Sensor. Has Sunlight Hours of the input Sensors masked by the hour intervals.



Overlay DS Sensor Results

Blend two or more DS Sensor Results into one.

Inputs

  • DS Sensor Results - DS Sensor Results that should be blended into one DS Sensor Result.

  • Blend Function - The function used to blend the sensor data:
    0 = Min - the lowest value will be used
    1 = Max - the highest value will be used

Outputs

  • Blended DS Sensor Results - Blended DS Sensor Result. Has Sunlight Hours of the input DS Sensor Results blended with the selected function. Its position is the center of the inputs' bounding box.



Sample DS Sensor Results

Sample how many sunlight hours a sensor receives during a Hours Interval.

Inputs

  • DS Sensor Results - Results of the direct sunlight evaluation either by Direct Sunlight Raw component or Direct Sunlight (the results need to be broken down all the way to DS Window Results). The DS Sensor results contain detailed about direct sunlight provisioning at each time of the day.

  • Hours Interval - Part of the day for which to read Direct Sunlight time from the Sensor results, provided as a Domain.
    Units: Hours

Outputs

  • Hours - Duration of Direct Sunlight measured in the specified Hours Interval.



DS Sensor Results to Hours

Converts the results for a Direct Sunlight sensor to hours of insolation. This can substantially speed up loading times when working with a large number of sensors.

Inputs

  • DS Sensor Results - Results of the direct sunlight evaluation either by Direct Sunlight Raw component or Direct Sunlight (the results need to be broken down all the way to DS Window Results). The DS Sensor results contain detailed about direct sunlight provisioning at each time of the day.

Outputs

  • Direct Sunlight Hours - The total amount of time during which the sensor receives direct sunlight over a day.
    Units: hours.



Solar Vector

Compute solar vector for place and date, in accordance with EN 17037:2018+A1:2021. The additional outputs can be used for filtering vectors and time intervals with minimum elevation angle, window normal deviation or azimuth, in accordance with various norms and standards.

Inputs

  • Hours of Day - A list of Hours of Day for which to create a ray in [0.0 to 24.0].
    If passed a list of [h₀, h₁, ..., hₙ], the resulting rays will correspond to time intervals [h₀..h₁], [h₁..h₂], ..., [hₙ..24] (unless hₙ = 24, in which case it ends with [hₙ₋₁..hₙ]).
    Units: Hours

  • North Vector - Vector indicating direction of the geographic North.

  • Latitude - Latitude of the evaluated point in radians (can be switched to degrees by right-clicking the input pin).
    Coordinates for European capitals can be obtained from the Country Constants component.

  • Longitude - Longitude of the evaluated point in radians (can be switched to degrees by right-clicking the input pin).
    Coordinates for European capitals can be obtained from the Country Constants component.

  • Time Zone Override - Time Zone Override in the place of measurement, not counting Daylight Savings Time.
    If not provided, Time Zone is inferred based on Longitude (Std. Meridian).
    The value is expected to be in range [-12 to 11]. 0 is UTC.
    Time Zone Overrides for European capitals can be obtained from the Country Constants component.

  • Date - Date for the sun path simulation.
    The value must be in range [1 Jan 1900 to 31 Dec 2100]

Outputs

  • Solar Vectors - Solar vectors corresponding to the middle of each Hours of Day interval.

  • Hour Intervals - Hours intervals corresponding to each solar vector.
    Units: Hours

  • Elevation Angles - Elevation angles corresponding to each solar vector.
    Units: Radians

  • North Deviations - North Deviations corresponding to each solar vector.
    Units: Radians



Daylight Factor evaluation

The Qubu Ultralight for Specialists computes Daylight Factor at a spherical or hemispherical sensor as define by the European norm EN 17037:2018+A1:2021:

“Daylight Factor is a ratio of the illuminance at a point on a given plane due to the light received directly or indirectly from a sky of assumed or known luminance distribution, to the illuminance on a horizontal plane due to an unobstructed hemisphere of this sky, excluding the contribution of direct sunlight to both illuminances.”

The daylight factor is computed using CIE Standard Overcast Sky Type 1, with steep luminance gradation towards zenith, azimuthal uniformity, in accordance with standard ISO 15469:2004(E), CIE S 011/E:2003.

The Qubu Ultralight for Specialists gives users complete control over the computation settings. The implementation is not restricted by any norm, allowing the computed daylight factor values to be evaluated according to the specific requirements of the project, as well as various standards like LEED or EN 17037.



Daylight Factor Raw

Computes Daylight Factor for a Scene and a set of Sensors.

Inputs

  • Scene - A Scene for containing Scene Geometry that reflects or refracts indirect sunlight from the implicit overcast sky dome.
    Transparent (compatible with the Qubu Ultralight for Designers Glazing Geometry) or translucent geometry needs to be specified explicitly. Each transparent surface reduces the amount of light that passes through it. For volumetric transparent / translucent objects, the light is attenuated twice: once when it enters and again when it exits. For accurate results, set the transmittance values of volumetric objects to the square root of the desired value.
    The scene is recommended to contain ground geometry for the light to reflect from the ground.
    The Scene may contain no Scene Geometry.

  • Sensor Positions - Standalone sensor points for Daylight Factor evaluation. The points will become source of rays distributed on a sphere / hemisphere.
    Do not place the sensors directly on surface of any Scene Geometry.

  • Sensor Normals - Normals for Daylight Factor Sensors.
    Normals orient the hemisphere in which Daylight Factor is measured around the Sensor Positions.
    When Sensor Normal is zero (Vector with all dimensions set to zero {0, 0, 0}), Daylight Factor is measured in a full sphere around the Sensor Position.

  • Ray Count - Number of rays shot from each Sensor in range [1 to 16384].
    Higher numbers provide more precision at the cost of computation speed.
    Only accepts a single value per component.

  • Ray Bounce Count - Number of times each ray can bounce off of surfaces before expiring.
    Only accepts a single value per component.

Outputs

  • Daylight Factor - Daylight Factor numerical values for sensors.



Daylight Factor Grid

Creates a Sensor grid for Daylight Factor computation from Polyline room boundaries, in accordance with EN 17037:2018+A1:2021. The generated sensors can be used as Sensor Positions for the Daylight Factor Raw component. The Sensor Normals are then positive vertical vectors.

Inputs

  • Boundaries - Planar closed Polylines representing room boundaries.
    A single room can be represented by multiple polylines - either as detached spaces or interruptions in plan, such as columns or obstacles.
    The boundary should be positioned at the room's floor level.
    When defining multiple rooms, make sure each room's boundaries are stored in a separate data tree branch.
    Units: meters

  • Grid Orientation - A planar vector defining the grid orientation. This allows customizing the orientation of generated sensor grids per each branch of the Room Boundaries tree.

  • Obstacle Distance Threshold - The minimum distance the Sensors need to be from any obstacles. If a Sensor is generated closer that this threshold, it will be removed.

  • Density Factor - The Sensor grid Density Factor.
    1.0 = according to EN 17037:2018+A1:2021
    2.0 = twice as dense, approximately four times more sensors
    0.5 = half as dense, approximately four times fewer sensors

Outputs

  • Sensor Positions - Daylight Factor Sensor positions.
    The Sensor Positions are vertically aligned with the boundary polyline.
    Daylight Factor evaluation may require the sensors to be vertically elevated - the EN 17037:2018+A1:2021 specified the position to be 0.85 meters above the floor.

  • Grid Cells - Rectangular areas representing the Sensors.
    The Grid Cells are vertically aligned with the boundary polyline.

Rendering

In addition to daylighting computation, the Qubu Ultralight also renders a grayscale camera view of a Scene, illuminated with the CIE Standard Overcast Sky Type 1.



Render

Renders a grayscale camera view of a Scene, illuminated with the CIE Standard Overcast Sky Type 1.

Inputs

  • Scene - A Scene for containing Scene Geometry that reflects or refracts indirect sunlight from the implicit overcast sky dome.

  • Camera Position - The Point the Camera is located at.

  • Camera Target - The Point the Camera is looking at.

  • Width - Image width in pixels.

  • Height - Image height in pixels.

  • Rays Per Pixel - Number of rays shot for each pixel in the image. Valid values are 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 32.

  • Bounce Count - Number of times rays bounce off of surfaces before expiring.

Outputs

  • Rendered Image - Rendered Image from a camera and a Scene. The image can be displayed using the Preview Rendered Image component.



Preview Rendered Image

Displays an Image rendered by the Render component.

Inputs

  • Rendered Image

Scene

All main features in the Qubu Ultralight for Specialists - Direct Sunlight, Daylight Factor, and Render - require a Scene with appropriately annotated geometry. Opaque and Glazing Geometry from the Qubu Ultralight for Designers can be used, or a more detailed setup can be created using the Scene Geometry component from the Engineering edition.



Scene

Compute a Scene for Direct Sunlight, Daylight Factor and Rendering from Scene Geometry.

Inputs

  • Scene Geometry - A list of pre-built Scene Geometries to construct the Scene from. Opaque and Glazing Geometry from the Qubu Ultralight for Designers can be used, or a more detailed setup can be created using the Scene Geometry component from the Engineering edition.

  • Optimize - An optimized Scene requires more time for building, but it reduces the time needed for Direct Sunlight, Daylight Factor, and Rendering computations. For most purposes, it is recommended to use an optimized Scene. If a Scene includes all necessary geometry, it can be reused for multiple purposes. Both optimized and unoptimized Scenes are appropriate for all purposes.

Outputs

  • Scene - A Scene for Direct Sunlight, Daylight Factor and Rendering computation.



Scene geometry

This component generates geometry for Daylight Factor calculation in the Qubu Ultralight for Designers and for constructing a Scene in the Qubu Ultralight for Specialists. The constructed geometry is annotated with a material and its properties. The component seamlessly converts compatible geometry into a triangulated mesh automatically. For complete control over the mesh's level of detail, manual conversion is recommended. Provide a triangulated mesh that will not undergo any modifications during the process.

Inputs

  • Mesh - Mesh geometry to be used as a transparent glazing.
    Vertical, open, single-plane Mesh geometry is expected.
    Surfaces and BReps will be automatically converted into Mesh.
    Meshes will be triangulated.
    Units: meters

  • Material Type - Geometry Material Type.
    0 = Opaque Diffuse (Lambertian) Material
    1 = Transparent Material
    2 = Translucent Material - similar to Transparent, but diffuses light

  • Material Parameter - This parameter changes meaning based on selected Material Type:
    For Opaque Diffuse materials, this is Reflectance [0 to 1] (0 = no reflection, 1 = all light reflected)
    For Transparent / Translucent materials, this is Transmittance [0 to 1] (0 = no light passes through, 1 = all light passes through)

Outputs

  • Scene Geometry - Scene Geometry with the assigned Material for constructing a Scene, ready for Direct Sunlight, Daylight Factor and Rendering computation.



Legislation-specific features

Even though the Qubu Ultralight for Specialists is not bound by any legislation or norm, it is suitable for evaluations compliant with various standards, such as LEED, the European Norm EN 17037:2018+A1:2021, or various national norms. Convenience tools for providing standardized values are available, allowing for easy comparison of the computed values to the requirements.



Direct Sunlight Target Levels

A convenience component containing target level constants for individual satisfaction levels according to the European Norm EN 17037:2018+A1:2021.

Outputs

  • Low - Minimum duration of direct sunlight reaching into a room to satisfy the Low Direct Sunlight level. Anything below this level is considered to be unsatisfactory.

  • Medium - Minimum duration of direct sunlight reaching into a room to satisfy the Medium Direct Sunlight level.

  • High - Minimum duration of direct sunlight reaching into a room to satisfy the High Direct Sunlight level.



Country Constants

A convenience component containing constants associated with individual countries according to the European Norm EN 17037:2018+A1:2021.

Inputs

  • Country Index - Index of the country where the evaluated project is located.
    0 = Austria
    1 = Belgium
    2 = Bulgaria
    3 = Croatia
    4 = Cyprus
    5 = Czech Republic
    6 = Denmark
    7 = Estonia
    8 = Finland
    9 = France
    10 = Germany
    11 = Greece
    12 = Hungary
    13 = Ireland
    14 = Iceland
    15 = Italy
    16 = Lithuania
    17 = Latvia
    18 = Luxembourg
    19 = Malta
    20 = Netherlands
    21 = North Macedonia
    22 = Norway
    23 = Poland
    24 = Portugal
    25 = Romania
    26 = Slovakia
    27 = Slovenia
    28 = Spain
    29 = Sweden
    30 = Switzerland
    31 = Turkey
    32 = United Kingdom

Outputs

  • Country Name

  • Latitude - Latitude of the country, based on its capital.
    Units: radians.

  • Longitude - Longitude of the country, based on its capital.
    Units: radians.

  • Time Zone - Time Zone of the country, not counting Daylight Savings Time. In range [-12 to 11].

  • Minimum Elevation Angle - Minimum solar rays' elevation angle, for Direct Sunlight computation.
    Units: radians.

  • Maximum Window Azimuth - Maximum window azimuth,for Direct Sunlight computation.
    Units: radians.

  • Daylight Factor 100lx - Daylight Factor value required to achieve 100lx.

  • Daylight Factor 300lx - Daylight Factor value required to achieve 300lx.

  • Daylight Factor 500lx - Daylight Factor value required to achieve 500lx.

  • Daylight Factor 750lx - Daylight Factor value required to achieve 750lx.



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Qubu

Generate residential buildings
with powerful AEC software

© 2024 DEVS s. r. o.